EuroGP2003
6th European Conference on Genetic Programming
14-16 April 2003

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Conor Ryan
Terry Soule
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Edward Tsang
Riccardo Poli

EuroGP2003

Accepted papers

Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science series The EuroGP2003 proceedings will be
published by Spinger as part of their
Lecture Notes in Computer Science series.


Oral presentations

A Simple but Theoretically-motivated Method to Control Bloat in Genetic Programming
Poli R
This paper presents a simple method to control bloat which is based on the idea of strategically and dynamically creating fitness {``holes{'' in the fitness landscape which repel the population. In particular we create holes by zeroing the fitness of a certain proportion of the offspring that have above average length. Unlike other methods where all individuals are penalised when length constraints are violated, here we randomly penalise only a fixed proportion of all the constraint-violating offspring. The paper describes the theoretical foundation for this method and reports the results of its empirical validation with two relatively hard test problems, which has confirmed the effectiveness of the approach.
EuroGP Session 7: Meta-search, compiler optimisation and bloat: April 15, 1120-1250

An innovative application of a constrained-syntax genetic programming system to the problem ofpredicting survival of patients
Bojarczuk C, Lopes H, Freitas A
This paper proposes a constrained-syntax genetic programming (GP) algorithm for discovering classification rules in medical data sets. The proposed GP contains several syntactic constraints to be enforced by the system using a disjunctive normal form representation, so that individuals represent valid rule sets that are easy to interpret. The GP is compared with C4.5 in a real-world medical data set. This data set represents a difficult classification problem, and a new preprocessing method was devised for mining the data.
EuroGP Session 3: Medical applications: April 14, 1400-1530

Analysis of a Digit Concatenation Approach to Constant Creation
O'Neill M, Dempsey I, Brabazon A, Ryan C
This study examines the utility of employing digit concatenation, as distinct from the traditional expression based approach, for the purpose of evolving constants in Grammatical Evolution. Digit concatenation involves creating constants (either whole or real numbers) by concatenating digits to form a single value. The two methods are compared using three different problems, which are finding a static real constant, finding dynamic real constants, and a quadratic map, which on iteration generates a chaotic time-series. The results indicate that the digit concatenation approach results in a significant improvement in the best fitness obtained across all problems analysed here.
EuroGP Session 2: Linear GP, crossover and constants: April 14, 1130-1300

Decreasing the Number of Evaluations in Evolutionary Algorithms by using a Meta-Model of the Fitness Function
Ziegler J, Banzhaf W
In this paper a method is presented that decreases the necessary number of evaluations in Evolutionary Algorithms. A classifier with confidence information is evolved to replace time consuming evaluations during tournament selection. Experimental analysis of a mathematical example and the application of the method to the problem of evolving walking patterns for quadruped robots show the potential of the presented approach.
EuroGP Session 4: Meta-fitness and alternative computational structures: April 14, 1600-1730

Divide and Conquer: Genetic Programming Based on Multiple Branches Encoding
Rodriguez K, Oliver-Morales C
This paper describes an alternative genetic programming encoding, which is based on a rooted-node with fixed-content. This rooted node combines partial results of a set of multiple branches. Hence, this approach is named Multiple Branches Genetic Programming. It is tested on a symbolic regression problem and used on a Boolean domain to solve the even-n parity problem.
EuroGP Session 9: Multi-program integration: April 15, 1530-1630

Ensemble techniques for Parallel Genetic Programming based Classifiers
Folino G, Pizzuti C, Spezzano G
An extension of Cellular Genetic Programming for data classification to induce an ensemble of predictors is presented. Each classifier is trained on a different subset of the overall data, then they are combined to classify new tuples by applying a simple majority voting algorithm, like bagging. Preliminary results on a large data set show that the ensemble of classifiers trained on a sample of the data obtains higher accuracy than a single classifier that uses the entire data set at a much lower computational cost.
EuroGP Session 9: Multi-program integration: April 15, 1530-1630

Evolutionary Design of Objects Using Scene Graphs
Ebner M
One of the main issues in evolutionary design is how to create three-dimensional shape. The representation needs to be general enough such that all possible shapes can be created, yet it has to be evolvable. That is, parent and offspring must be related. Small changes to the genotype should lead to small changes of the fitness of an individual. We have explored the use of scene graphs to evolve three-dimensional shapes. Two different scene graph representations are analyzed, the scene graph representation used by OpenInventor and the scene graph representation used by VRML. Both representations use internal floating point variables to specify three-dimensional vectors, rotation axes and rotation angles. The internal parameters are initially chosen at random, then remain fixed during the run. We also experimented with an evolution strategy to adapt the internal variables. Experimental results are presented for the evolution of a wind turbine. The VRML representation produced better results.
EuroGP Session 11: Alternative representations and 3-D shape design: April 16, 1000-1100

Evolving Cellular Automata to Grow Microstructures
Basanta D, Bentley P, Miodownik M, Holm E
The properties of engineering structures such as cars, cell phones or bridges rely on materials and on the properties of these materials. The study of these properties, which are determined by the internal architecture of the material or microstructure, has significant importance for material scientists. One of the things needed for this study is a tool that can create microstructural patterns. In this paper we explore the use of a genetic algorithm to evolve the rules of an effector automata to recreate these microstructural patterns.
EuroGP Session 4: Meta-fitness and alternative computational structures: April 14, 1600-1730

Evolving Finite State Transducers: Some Initial Explorations
Lucas S
Finite state transducers (FSTs) are finite state machines that map strings in a source domain into strings in a target domain. While there are many reports in the literature of evolving general finite state machines, there has been much less work on evolving FSTs.In particular, the fitness functions required for evolving FSTs are generally different to those used for FSMs.This paper considers three string-distance based fitness functions.We compute their fitness distance correlations, and present results on using two of these (Strict and Hamming) to evolve FSTs. We can control the difficulty of the problem by the presence of short strings in the training set, which make the learning problem easier.In the case of the harder problem, the Hamming measure performs best, while the Strict measure performs best on the easier problem.
EuroGP Session 4: Meta-fitness and alternative computational structures: April 14, 1600-1730

Evolving Hierarchical and RecursiveTeleo-Reactive Programs through Genetic Programming
Kochenderfer M
Teleo-reactive programs and the triple tower architecture have been proposed as a framework for linking perception and action in agents. The triple tower architecture continually updates the agent's knowledge of the world and evokes actions according to teleo-reactive control structures. This paper uses block stacking problems to demonstrate how genetic programming may be used to evolve hierarchical and recursive teleo-reactive programs.
EuroGP Session 8: Feature construction and modularity and hierarchies in GP: April 15, 1345-1515

Feature Construction and Selection using Genetic Programming and a Genetic Algorithm
Smith M, Bull L
The use of machine learning techniques to automatically analyse data for information is becoming increasingly widespread. In this paper we examine the use of Genetic Programming and a Genetic Algorithm to pre-process data before it is classified using the C4.5 decision tree learning algorithm. The Genetic Programming is used to construct new features from those available in the data, a potentially significant process for data mining since it gives consideration to hidden relationships between features. The Genetic Algorithm is used to determine which such features are the most predictive. Using ten well-known datasets we show that our approach, in comparison to C4.5 alone, provides marked improvement in a number of cases.
EuroGP Session 8: Feature construction and modularity and hierarchies in GP: April 15, 1345-1515

Genetic Programming Applied to Compiler Heuristic Optimization
Stephenson M, O'Reilly U, Martin M, Amarasinghe S
Genetic programming (GP) has a natural niche in the optimization of small but high payoff software heuristics.We use GP to optimize the priority functions associated with two well known compiler heuristics: predicated hyperblock formation, and register allocation.Our system achieves impressive speedups over a standard baseline for both problems.For hyperblock selection, application-specific heuristics obtain an average speedup of 23% (up to 73%) for the applications in our suite. By evolving the compiler's heuristic over several benchmarks, the best general-purpose heuristic our system found improves the predication algorithm by an average of 25% on our training set, and 9% on a completely unrelated test set.We also improve a well-studied register allocation heuristic.On average, our system obtains a 6% speedup when it specializes the register allocation algorithm for individual applications.The general-purpose heuristic for register allocation achieves a 3% improvement.
EuroGP Session 7: Meta-search, compiler optimisation and bloat: April 15, 1120-1250

Genetic Programming with Boosting for Ambiguities in Regression Problems
Paris G, Robilliard D, Fonlupt C
Facing ambiguities in regression problems is a challenge.There exists many powerful evolutionary schemes to deal with regression, however, these techniques do not usually take into account ambiguities {i.e. the existence of 2 or more solutions for some or all points in the domain).Nonetheless ambiguities are present in some real world inverse problems, and it is interesting in such cases to provide the user with a choice of possible solutions. We propose in this article an approach based on boosted genetic programming in order to propose several solutions when ambiguities are detected.
EuroGP Session 12: Symbolic regression: April 16, 1120-1250

Genetic Programming With Meta-Search: Searching For a Successful Population Within The Classification Domain
Loveard T
The genetic programming (GP) search method can often vary greatly in the quality of solution derived from one run to the next. As a result, it is often the case that a number of runs must be performed to ensure that an effective solution is found. This paper introduces several methods which attempt to better utilise the computational resources spent on performing a number of independent GP runs. Termed meta-search strategies, these methods seek to search the space of evolving GP populations in an attempt to focus computational resources on those populations which are most likely to yield competitive solutions. Two meta-search strategies are introduced and evaluated over a set of classification problems. The meta-search strategies are termed a pyramid search strategy and a population beam search strategy. Additional to these methods, a combined approach using properties of both the pyramid and population beam search methods is evaluated. Over a set of five classification problems, results show that meta-search strategies can substantially improve the accuracy of solutions over those derived by a set of independent GP runs. In particular the combined approach is demonstrated to give more accurate classification performance whilst requiring less time to train than a set of independent GP runs, making this method a promising approach for problems for which multiple GP runs must be performed to ensure a quality solution.
EuroGP Session 7: Meta-search, compiler optimisation and bloat: April 15, 1120-1250

How functional dependency adapts to salience hierarchy in the GAuGE system
Nicolau M, Ryan C
GAuGE is a position independent genetic algorithm that suffers from neither under nor over-specification, and uses a genotype to phenotype mapping process. By specifying both the position and the value of each gene, it has the potential to group important data together in the genotype string, to prevent it from being broken up and disrupted during the evolution process. To test this ability, GAuGE was applied to a set of problems with exponentially scaled salience. The results obtained demonstrate that GAuGE is indeed moving the more salient genes to the start of the genotype strings, creating robust individuals that are built in a progressive fashion from the left to the right side of the genotype.
EuroGP Session 11: Alternative representations and 3-D shape design: April 16, 1000-1100

Improving Symbolic Regression with Interval Arithmetic and Linear Scaling
Keijzer M
The use of protected operators and squared error measures are standard approaches in symbolic regression. It will be shown that two relatively minor modifications of a symbolic regression system can result in greatly improved predictive performance and reliability of the induced expressions. To achieve this, interval arithmetic and linear scaling are used. An experimental section demonstrates the improvements on 15 symbolic regression problems.
EuroGP Session 12: Symbolic regression: April 16, 1120-1250

Interactive GP for Data Retrieval in Medical Databases
Landrin-Schweitzer Y, Collet P, Lutton E
We present in this paper the design of ELISE, an interactive GP system for document retrieval tasks in very large medical databases. The components of ELISE have been tailored in order to produce a system that is capable of suggesting documents related to the query that may be of interest to the user, thanks to evolved profiling information. Tests on the "Cystic Fibrosis Database" benchmark show that, while suggesting original documents by adaptation of its internal rules to the context of the user, ELISE is able to improve its recall rate.
EuroGP Session 3: Medical applications: April 14, 1400-1530

Maximum Homologous Crossover for Linear Genetic Programming
Platel M, Clergue M, Collard P
We introduce a new recombination operator, the Maximum Homologous Crossover for Linear Genetic Programming. In contrast to standard crossover, it attempts to preserve similar structures from parents, by aligning them according to their homology, thanks to an algorithm used in Bio-Informatics. To highlight disruptive effects of crossover operators, we introduce the Royal Road landscapes and the Homology Driven Fitness problem, for Linear Genetic Programming. Two variants of the new crossover operator are described and tested on this landscapes. Results show a reduction in the bloat phenomenon and in the frequency of deleterious crossovers.
EuroGP Session 2: Linear GP, crossover and constants: April 14, 1130-1300

Modularity in Genetic Programming
Woodward J
Genetic Programming uses a tree based representation to express solutions to problems. Trees are constructed from a primitive set which consists of a function set and a terminal set. An extension to GP is the ability to define modules, which are in turn tree based representations defined in terms of the primitives. The most well known of these methods is Koza's Automatically Defined Functions. In this paper it is proved that for a given problem, the minimum number of nodes in the main tree plus the nodes in any modules is independent of the primitive set (up to an additive constant) and depends only on the function being expressed. This reduces the number of user defined parameters in the run and makes the inclusion of a hypothesis in the search space independent of the primitive set.
EuroGP Session 8: Feature construction and modularity and hierarchies in GP: April 15, 1345-1515

More on Computational Effort Statistics for Genetic Programming
Niehaus J, Banzhaf W
In this contribution we take a look at the computational effort statistics as described by Koza. We transfer the notion from generational genetic programming to tournament-selection (steady-state) GP and show why, in both cases, the measured value of the effort often differs from its theoretical counterpart. It is discussed how systematic estimation errors are introduced by a low number of experiments. Two reasons examined are the number of unsuccessful experiments and the variation in the number of fitness evaluations necessary to find a solution among the successful experiments.
EuroGP Session 6: Population size and performance measures: April 15, 1000-1100

New Factorial Design Theoretic Crossover Operator for Parametrical Problem
Chan K, Aydin M, Fogarty T
Recent research shows that factorial design methods improve the performance of the crossover operator in evolutionary computation. However the methods employed so far ignore the effects of interaction between genes on fitness, i.e. "epistasis". Here we propose the application of a systematic method for interaction effect analysis to enhance the performance of the crossover operator. It is shown empirically that the proposed method significantly outperforms existing crossover operators on benchmark problems with high interaction between the variables.
EuroGP Session 2: Linear GP, crossover and constants: April 14, 1130-1300

Overfitting or Poor Learning: A Critique of Current Financial Applications of GP
Chen S, Kuo T
Motivated by a measure of predictability, this paper uses the extracted signal ratio as a measure of the degree of overfitting.With this measure, we examine the performance of one type of overfitting-avoidance design frequently used in financial applications of GP.Based on the simulation results run with the software Simple GP, we find that this design is not effective in avoiding overfitting. Furthermore, within the range of search intensity typically considered by these applications, we find that underfitting, instead of overfitting, is the more prevalent problem.This problem becomes more serious when the data is generated by a process that has a high degree of algorithmic complexity.This paper, therefore, casts doubt on the conclusions made by those early applications regarding the poor performance of GP, and recommends that changes be made to ensure progress.
EuroGP Session 3: Medical applications: April 14, 1400-1530

Parallel Programs are More Evolvable than Sequential Programs
Leung K, Lee K, Cheang S
This paper presents a novel phenomenon of the Genetic Parallel Programming (GPP) paradigm - the GPP accelerating phenomenon. GPP is a novel Linear Genetic Programming representation for evolving parallel programs running on a Multi-ALU Processor (MAP).We carried out a series of experiments on GPP with different number of ALUs. We observed that parallel programs are more evolvable than sequential programs. For example, in the Fibonacci sequence regression experiment, evolving a 1-ALU sequential program requires 51 times on average of the computational effort of an 8-ALU parallel program.This paper presents three benchmark problems to show that the GPP can accelerate evolution of parallel programs. Due to the accelerating evolution phenomenon of GPP over sequential program evolution, we could increase the normal GP's evolution efficiency by evolving a parallel program by GPP and if there is a need, the evolved parallel program can be translated into a sequential program so that it can run on conventional hardware.
EuroGP Session 11: Alternative representations and 3-D shape design: April 16, 1000-1100

Reducing Population Size While Maintaining Diversity
Monsieurs P, Flerackerseddy E
This paper presents a technique to drastically reduce the size of a population, while still maintaining sufficient diversity for evolution. An advantage of a reduced population size is the reduced number of fitness evaluations necessary. In domains where calculation of fitness values is expensive, this results in a huge speedup of the search. Additionally, in the experiments performed, smaller populations also resulted in a faster convergence speed towards an optimal solution.
EuroGP Session 6: Population size and performance measures: April 15, 1000-1100

Poster presentations

An Analysis of Diversity of Constants of Genetic Programming
Ryan C, Keijzer M
This paper conducts an investigation into the manner in which constants evolve during the course of GP run. It starts by describing an intuitive Gaussian type mutation for constants and showing that its ability to produce small changes in individuals leads to a high performance. It then demonstrates the surprising result that, in a selection of real world problems, simple random mutation performs better. The paper then finishes with an analysis of the diversity of constants in the population, and the manner in which this changes over time.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

An Enhanced Framework for Microprocessor
Corno F, Squillero G
Test programs are fragment of code, but, unlike ordinary application programs, they are not intended to solve a problem, nor to calculate a function. Instead, they are supposed to give information about the machine that actually executes them. Today, the need for effective test programs is increasing, and, due to the inexorable increase in the number of transistor that can be integrated onto a single silicon die, devising effective test programs is getting more problematical. This paper presentsGP, an efficient and versatile approach to test-program generation based on an evolutionary algorithm. The proposed methodology is highly versatile and improves previous approaches, allowing the test-program generator generating complex assembly programs that include subroutines calls.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Artificial Immune System Programming for Symbolic Regression
Johnson C
Artificial Immune Systems are computational algorithms which take their inspiration from the way in which natural immune systems learn to respond to attacks on an organism. This paper discusses how such a system can be used as an alternative to genetic algorithms as a way of exploring program-space in a system similar to genetic programming. Some experimental results are given for a symbolic regression problem. The paper ends with a discussion of future directions for the use of artificial immune systems in program induction.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Assembling Strategies in Extrinsic Evolvable Hardware with Bidirectional Incremental Evolution
Baradavkaigor I, Kalganova T
Bidirectional incremental evolution (BIE) has been proposed as a technique to overcome the "stalling" effect in evolvable hardware applications. However preliminary results show perceptible dependence of performance of BIE and quality of evaluated circuit on assembling strategy applied during reverse stage of incremental evolution. The purpose of this paper is to develop assembling strategy that will assist BIE to produce relatively optimal solution with minimal computational effort (e.g. the minimal number of generations).
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Cooperative Evolution on the Intertwined Spirals Problem
Soule T
This paper examines the evolution cooperation on the intertwined spirals problem.Multiple cooperation mechanisms are tested. Cooperation evolves fairly easily for each of the cooperation mechanisms, producing compact, successful team based solutions. Importantly, the team members' fitness is relatively poor.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Disease modeling using Evolved Discriminate Function
Werner J, Kalganova T
Precocious diagnosis increases the survival time and patient quality of life. It is a binary classification, exhaustively studied in the literature. This paper innovates proposing the application of genetic programming to obtain a discriminate function. This function contains the disease dynamics used to classify the patients with as little false negative diagnosis as possible. If its value is greater than zero then it means that the patient is ill, otherwise healthy. A graphical representation is proposed to show the influence of each dataset attribute in the discriminate function. The experiment deals with Breast Cancer and Thrombosis and Collagen diseases diagnosis. The main conclusion is that the discriminate function is able to classify the patient using numerical clinical data, and the graphical representation displays patterns that allow understanding of the model.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Evolutionary Optimized Mold Temperature Control Strategies using a Multi-Polyline Approach
Mehnen J, Michelitsch T, Weinert K
During the machining process the tools for pressure and injection molding have to keep an optimal working temperature. This temperature depends on the workpiece material and allows a safe, efficient and precise machining process. The compact and very expensive steel molds are penetrated with deep hole drilling bores that are combined to form mold temperature control circuits. Today the structure of these circuits are designed manually. Here, a new automatic layout system for mold temperature control strategies is introduced which uses a multiobjective fitness function. The circuits are encoded via a polyline approach. The complex optimization problem is solved using a variation of the evolution strategy. The evolutionary approach as well as first results of the system will be discussed.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Experimental design based multi-parent crossover operator
Chan K, Fogarty T
Recently, the methodologies of multi-parent crossover have been developed by performing the crossover operation with multi-parent. Some studies have indicated the high performance of multi-parent cros\-sover on some numerical optimization problems. Here a new crossover operator has been proposed by integrating multi-parent crossover with the approach of experimental design. It is based on experimental design method in exploring the solution space that compensates the random search as in traditional genetic algorithm. By replacing the inbuilt randomness of crossover operator with a more systematical method, the proposed method outperforms the classical GA strategy on several GA benchmark problems.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Fitness Distance Correlation in Structural Mutation Genetic Programming
Vanneschi L, Tomassini M, Collard P, Clergue M
A new kind of mutation for genetic programming based on the structural distance operators for trees is presented in this paper. We firstly describe a new genetic programming process based on these operators (we call it structural mutation genetic programming). Then we use structural distance to calculate the fitness distance correlation coefficient and we show that this coefficient is a reasonable measure to express problem difficulty for structural mutation genetic programming for the considered set of problems, i.e. unimodal trap functions, royal trees and MAX problem.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

From Implementations to a General Concept of Evolvable Machines
Sekanina L
This paper introduces a little bit different view on evolvable computational machines than it is usually presented. Evolvable machines are considered as mathematical machines. Traditional tools of theoretical computer science are then employed in order to obtain qualitatively new understanding the evolvable machines. In particular the questions related to formal definition and computational power are discussed. The concept is proposed in framework of traditional software and hardware implementations of evolvable machines.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Genetic Programming for Attribute Construction in Data Mining
Otero F, Silva M, Freitas A, Nievola J
For a given data set, its set of attributes defines its data space representation. The quality of a data space representation is one of the most important factors influencing the performance of a data mining algorithm. The attributes defining the data space can be inadequate, making it difficult to discover high-quality knowledge. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a Genetic Programming algorithm developed for attribute construction. This algorithm constructs new attributes out of the original attributes of the data set, performing an important preprocessing step for the subsequent application of a data mining algorithm.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Grammatical Evolution with Bidirectional Representation
Kubalik J, Koutni J, Rothkrantz L
Grammatical evolution is an evolutionary algorithm designed to evolve programs in any language. Grammatical evolution operates on binary strings and the mapping of the genotype onto the phenotype (the tree representation of the programs) is provided through the grammar described in the form of production rules. The program trees are constructed in a pre-order fashion, which means that as the genome is traversed first the left most branch of the tree is completed then the second from the left one etc. Once two individuals are crossed over by means of simple one-point crossover the tail parts of the chromosomes (originally encoding the structures on the right side of the program tree) may map on different program structures within the new context. Here we present a {\it bidirectional representation which helps to equalize the survival rate of both the program structures appearing on the left and right side of the program parse tree.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Introducing a Perl Genetic Programming System: and Can Meta-evolution Solve the Bloat Problem?
MacCallum R
An open source Perl package for genetic programming, called PerlGP, is presented.The supplied algorithm is strongly typed tree-based GP with homologous crossover.User-defined grammars allow any valid Perl to be evolved, including object oriented code and parameters of the PerlGP system itself.Time trials indicate that PerlGP is around 10 times slower than a C based system on a numerical problem, but this is compensated by the speed and ease of implementing new problems, particularly string-based ones.The effect of per-node, fixed and self-adapting crossover and mutation rates on code growth and fitness is studied.On a pi estimation problem, self-adapting rates give both optimal and compact solutions.The source code and manual can be found at http://perlgp.org
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Multi Niche Parallel GP with a Junk-code Migration Model
Garcia S, Levine J, Gonzalez F
We describe in this paper a parallelimplementation of Multi Niche Genetic Programming that we use to test the performance ofa modified migration model. Evolutive introns is a technique developed to accelerate the convergence of GP in classification andsymbolic regression problems. Here, we will copy into a differentiatedsubpopulation the individuals that dueto theevolution processcontain longer Evolutive Introns.Additionally, the multi island model is parallelised in order to speed up convergence. These results are also analysed. Our results prove that the multi island model achieves faster convergence in the three different symbolic regression problems tested, and that the junk-coded subpopulation is not significantly worse than the others, which reinforces our belief in that the important thing is notonly fitness but keepinggood genetic diversityalong all the evolution process. The overhead introduced in the process by the existence of various island, and the migration model is reduced using a multi-thread approach.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Neutral Variations Cause Bloat in Linear GP
Brameier M, Banzhaf W
In this contribution we investigate the influence of different variation effects on the growth of code. A mutation-based variant of linear GP is applied that operates with minimum structural step sizes. Results show that neutral variations are a direct cause for (and not only a result of) the emergence and the growth of intron code. The influence of non-neutral variations has been found to be considerably smaller. Neutral variations turned out to be beneficial by solving two classification problems more successfully.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

No Free Lunch, Program Induction and Combinatorial Problems
Woodward J, Neil J
This paper has three aims. Firstly, to clarify the poorly understood No Free Lunch Theorem (NFL) which states all search algorithms perform equally. Secondly, search algorithms are often applied to program induction and it is suggested that NFL does not hold due to the universal nature of the mapping between program space and functionality space. Finally, NFL and combinatorial problems are examined. When evaluating a candidate solution, it can be discarded without being fully examined. A stronger version of NFL is established for this class of problems where the goal is to minimize a quantity.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Research of a cellular automaton simulating logic gates by evolutionary algorithms
Sapin E, Bailleux O, Chabrier J
This paper presents a method of using genetic programming to seek new cellular automata that perform computational tasks. Two genetic algorithms are used : the first one discovers a rule supporting gliders and the second one modifies this rule in such a way that some components appear allowing it to simulate logic gates. The results show that the genetic programming is a promising tool for the search of cellular automata with specific behaviors, and thus can prove to be decisive for discovering new automata supporting universal computation.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Sensible Initialisation in Chorus
Ryan C, Atif R
One of the key characteristics of Evolutionary Algorithms is the manner in which solutions are evolved from a primordial soup. The way this soup, or initial generation, is created can have major implications for the eventual quality of the search, as, if there is not enough diversity, the population may become stuck on a local optimum. This paper reports an initial investigation using a position independent evolutionary algorithm, {\em Chorus, where the usual random initialisation has been compared to an approach modelled on the GP ramped half and half method. Three standard benchmark problems have been chosen from the GP literature for this study. It is shown that the new initialisation method, termed sensible initialisation maintains populations with higher average fitness especially earlier on in evolution than with random initialisation. Only one of the benchmarks fails to show an improvement in a probability of success measure, and we demonstrate that this is more likely a symptom of issues with that benchmark than with the idea of sensible initialisation. Performance seems to be unaffected by the different derivation tree depths used, and having a wider pool of individuals, regardless of their average size, seems enough to improve the performance of the system.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

The Effect of Plagues in Genetic Programming: A Study of Variable-Size Populations
Fernandez F, Vanneschi L, Tomassini M
A study on the effect of variable size populations in genetic programming is presented in this work. We apply the idea of plague (high desease of individuals). We show that although plagues are generally considered as negative events, they can help populations to save computing time and at the same time surviving individuals can reach high peaks in the fitness landscape.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

The Root Causes of Code Growth in Genetic Programming
Streeter M
This paper discusses the underlying pressures responsible for code growth in genetic programming, and shows how an understanding of these pressures can be used to use to eliminate code growth while simultaneously improving performance.We begin with a discussion of two distinct components of code growth and the extent to which each component is relevant in practice.We then define the concept of resilience in GP trees, and show that the buildup of resilience is essential for code growth. We present simple modifications to the selection procedures used by GP that eliminate bloat without hurting performance.Finally, we show that eliminating bloat can improve the performance of genetic programming by a factor that increases as the problem is scaled in difficulty.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930

Tree Adjoining Grammars, Language Bias, and Genetic Programming
Xuan N, McKay R, Abbass H
In this paper, we introduce a new grammar guided genetic programming system called tree-adjoining grammar guided genetic programming (TAG3P+), where tree-adjoining grammars (TAGs) are used as means to set language bias for genetic programming. We show that the capability of TAGs in handling context-sensitive information and categories can be useful to set a language bias that cannot be specified in grammar guided genetic programming. Moreover, we bias the genetic operators to preserve the language bias during the evolutionary process. The results pace the way towards a better understanding of the importance of bias in genetic programming.
EuroGP Session 5: Posters: April 14, 1730-1930